Nearly twenty years ago, Kurt Vonnengut, an American author perhaps most famously known for his satirical novel Slaughterhouse-Five, gave a lecture that would change the way we think about stories. Standing in front of a blackboard, chalk in hand, he proclaims, “There’s no reason why the simple shapes of stories can’t be fed into computers; they are beautiful shapes.” He then proceeds to plot a cosine curve, and amidst applause and laughter, playfully declares, “People love this story!”
Those Who Tell the Stories Rule the World
The notion Vonnengut explores is an interesting one - can we quantitatively look at writing to understand how it is emotionally structured? When we read, we feel emotionally connected to the writing. We get so ‘lost’ in the fictional world and fall so deep into it that our own emotions become mapped to the narrative. In fact, narrative transportation theory in psychology studies exactly this. The quantitative meta-analysis by Van Laer, De Ruyter, Visconti and Wetzels on the effects of narrative transportation allude to readers ‘mentally enter(ing) a world that a story evokes’. We feel what we read, and being able to understand how these emotions vary over the course of a story is, I think, an extremely interesting intellectual pursuit.
More importantly, this discussion leads to some interesting questions that we can now address through data analysis of big datasets. How does this emotional structure vary over generations of writing, from early 16th century Shakespeare to modern day Pratchett? How do these trends differ between cultures - how similar or different is Indian and Japanese literature in its emotional structure? Do certain authors have an emotional signature - a unique structure to their stories, a formula to their writing? Given an emotional structure, can we predict what kind of story it is (or perhaps even predict its ending?)
Many of these questions were inspired by the research of Andrew Reagan and the Computatational Story Lab at the University of Vermont, where they used sentiment analysis to analyze the ‘emotional arcs’ of 1,700 stories to reveal the most common ones. Their findings are fascinating - according to the research, all stories conform to one of six basic emotional arcs.
As an avid reader, this research really fascinates me. In this multi-part blog series, I will try to understand the concept of an emotional timeseries in a piece of literature, and how it is affected by various factors. In future posts, I will attempt to address some of the more interesting questions that I brought up earlier.
Understanding Emotional Structure
To fully understand the emotional structure of a piece of text, we need to break it down to its most fundamental element - the word. Each word can be analyzed for its sentiment, it’s relationship with the other words around it and how these factors change as the text progresses. Sentiment in this example, and in natural language processing in general, is often binary; it is either positive or negative. By analyzing how the average sentiment varies in a text, we can get a somewhat representative idea of the text’s emotion. A block of text that describes a fight between the proganist and antagonist, for example, is likely to have a more negative sentiment than one that describes how a character feels when exploring a new world.
In this context of this discussion, several terms will be used, and it is worthwhile to try to define them at this point.
A sentiment score describes how positive or negative a word is.
An emotional timeseries describes the sentiment score of a text plotted against time. Time, in this sense of this definition, is the current position of linear progression into the text. That is, the very first point in time would be at the start of the book, and the very last would be at the end.
Segmentation refers to breaking apart the textual data into chunks that can be analyzed seperately. We will be calculating average sentiment for each of these blocks to get a better idea of how this value progresses between the chunks.
Now that these general terms are defined, let’s move on to the methodology for the analysis.
Gathering the Textual Data
I decided to analyze text from Project Gutenberg, a public repository of over 50,000 ebooks, due to ease of access and high quality of data. Specifically, I made use of a manually cleaned corpus (with metadata, license information, transcribers’ notes, etc removed) with 3,036 books by 142 authors provided here by Lahiri from University of Michigan. In the example provided in this post however, I manually cleaned a text file for Lord of the Flies by William Golding.
Retrieving the Sentiment Information
I used LabMT, a scored word list dataset for language assessment and sentiment analysis, to retrive the average happiness of a word. The dataset, which has 10,222 entries, also has other information for each word like happiness rank, happiness standard deviation, Twitter rank, Google rank, NYT rank and lyrics rank. This is what it looks like.
We can easily load all of this information by reading it into a
pandas dataframe for later reference and converting the average happiness column it to a dictionary for quickly looking it up when we’re building our scoring system.
Creating the Emotional Timeseries
The methodology for creating the sentiment score was inspired by Reagan’s paper. A sliding window approach is used to obtain the emotional content of groups of 10,000 word windows. The text is first broken up into segments of uniform length. This length is appropriately calculated to generate a hundred points of data by sliding the window across the text, incrementing by the segment length in every iteration.
To obtain the appropriately segmented blocks of text, we first read in the text file, clean it up a bit and split it into a list of words.
We can then identify an appropriate segment length
Ns that will give us a hundred data points for the timeseries.
This segment length allows us to create our sliding window that iterates across segments. In this process, we also calculate the average happiness score of each 10,000 word window by taking into account both the happiness scores of the individual words as indicated by the LabMT dataset, as well as their normalized frequencies within the word window.
This can be represented by the function above which calculate the average happiness score of a text T that is analyzed, where N is the total number of words in the text. The average happiness score of each word is obtained from the LabMT data, and is multiplied with the frequency of the word in the text, normalized over the sum of all its occurences. This value represents the text’s overall average happiness, also known as valence.
With this knowledge, we can then define a scoring function that takes in a list of words and returns the average sentiment (the data point in the timeseries) for each window.
We first analyze the set of words to remove any stopwords that might skew our results. Stopwords are words that are commonly removed from input terms when processing natural language data as they do not contain important significance to the text. Some examples are the, and, me, etc. NLTK, a great library for natural language processing in Python, has a handy collection of common stopwords.
We can then create a frequency distribution of the filtered words to calculate the normalized frequency, or the frequency of the word as a fraction of its total frequency within the input text. By summing up the products of the normalized frequency and the sentiment score that we retrieve from the
labmt_dict for each word, we can find the average sentiment.
With the sliding windows and average happiness scores, we can construct an emotional timeseries that describes the average sentiment of the book as it progresses.
By subtracting the mean of the timeseries, we can find the progression of relative sentiment scores and we can understand more clearly how the different sections of the text relate positively or negatively to each other.
Let’s see how this looks like when we plot it for a very popular book - Lord of the Flies.
Lord of the Flies: A Case Study
When we plot the raw average sentiment scores, we get something like this.
While we can see some changes in sentiment over the course of story, perhaps this approach is not the most effective way to describe the variation in sentiment. What if we plotted the relatiive sentiment scores instead by subtracting the mean, as mentioned earlier?
This looks much more promising. We can now see that there are certain well-defined regions in the text that are positive and are above average, and others that are negative and below average. This leads to another interesting question - can we break apart the story by chapters, analyze the key events in each chapter, and correlate that with the average sentiment? Let’s try it out.
To find the start and end positions of each chapter, I search through the text for occurrences of Chapter One, Chapter Two and so on, and mark the boundaries for each chapter.
num2words allows me to put this logic into a loop and convert the numbers to equivalent words. With
zip, I generate a list of
(start, end) tuples that demarcate the boundaries of each chapter. Let’s use this information to mark out the sections in the earlier plot and label them accordingly.
I then create a summary of key events in each chapter of the book.
SPOILERS below if you have not read Lord of the Flies (read it, and come back to this post again!)
Chapter 1: Plane gets shot down. The boys elect a chief. They attempt to establish order.
Chapter 2: The boys call an assembly. Ralph decides to make a fire. Piggy and Jack have an argument.
Chapter 3: Jack starts to become savage. Some of the boys work on huts, the others play.
Chapter 4: The littluns are bullied. Jack and Piggy fight.
Chapter 5: Ralph tries to set things in order. The boys discuss the beast.
Chapter 6: Plane gets shot down and the boys encounter a dead parachutist.
Chapter 7: The boys act out a pig hunt. They continue hunting for the beast. They encouter the parachutist.
Chapter 8: Jack insults Ralph and asks him to leave. Simon has a conversation with the pig’s head.
Chapter 9: A storm is brewing. Simon is killed.
Chapter 10: Jack and his tribe are transformed into savages. They steal Piggy’s glasses.
Chapter 11: Piggy confronts Jack. The conch gets smashed. Piggy is killed.
Chapter 12: Ralph is hunted. He runs till he finds a naval officer who rescues them.
If you compare this summary of key events with the plot we just created, you can see that the average sentiment works pretty well. Especially so when you consider the fact that all we’re analyzing here is binary sentiment and effectively just the choice of words in the writing. We see peaks at events like the first creation of the fire, and the acting out of the pig hunt which brings the boys closer together. The troughs are at places where we’d expect, such as when key characters like Simon and Piggy are killed off. What’s interesting is that we can also see some pattern around where the tone of the story starts to change - like when we being seeing visible differences to Jack’s character, and when Simon has the conversation with the pig’s head.
The Ancient Art of Storytelling
I think that what’s been done here is conceptually very interesting. We’ve managed to quantitatively analyze the emotional structure of a story and how it changes as the story progresses. By creating a ‘sentiment score’, we’ve attached a value and magnitude to emotion - an objective outlook on a subjective feeling, a non-traditional way to think about storytelling.
It’s not perfect (and I don’t think it can ever be). The way I feel while reading a book will never be exactly the same as the way you feel while reading it. There are millions of other factors involved in reading, like my views and beliefs, the books I’ve read previously, preferences for writing style and so on. But this does give us an interesting outlook on storytelling in general, and on trends that show how stories tend to progress. This kind of analysis allows us to find patterns within stories and answer interesting questions like how a certain text differs across time and space, and history and culture.
This, I think, is just the tip of the iceberg in understanding the ancient art of storytelling.